According to BP , the most promising country for shale gas production is China, which is projected to expand rapidly and overtake North American shale gas growth by However, based on current market conditions, Platts a believes China's domestic shale gas production will not achieve substantial development until or after There is also uncertainty over future gas supply from pipeline imports.
Two large projects for gas pipelines from Siberia to China are currently approved, planning to supply up to 50 Mt per year of gas to China by However, given Russia's current financial crisis and the recent fall in gas prices, the progress and completion of these projects are at risk. The current gas pricing system in China, which is subsided and highly distorted, is also another important factor influencing the country's future LNG imports.
Following the recent regulation by the National Development and Reform Commission NDRC , and since 1 September , wholesale prices for non-residential gas users are reported to have increased by Driven by economic growth and emission reduction targets, India is projected to increase LNG imports significantly Balyan, However, uncertainty over economic growth and fuel mix policy, targeted toward a substitution of gas for oil and coal, will also influence India's future LNG imports.
At the end of , global LNG production capacity was Mt per year, of which Qatar is the world largest LNP exporter with an export volume of Figure 1 presents historical LNG exports by major suppliers over the period —13, indicating a diversified trend of LNG export development among major exporters. Qatar's LNG exports are the most striking case, increasing from During —13, the LNG exports of Nigeria, Australia and Malaysia have increased rapidly at an average growth rate by Alternatively, Indonesia's LNG exports have decreased over the past ten years at a rate of 3 percent per year Petroleum Economist, Trend of LNG export by major suppliers, —13 Mt.
Exports to Asia-Pacific in Natural gas is the centre of Qatar's energy sector, after many years of developing its natural gas resources, particularly in the North Field. Due to low domestic energy demand, nearly all of Qatar's gas production is exported, making the country the world-leading exporter of LNG since EIA, f. Qatar's exports increased rapidly during —11 and have been relatively stable from —13 Figure 1.
Due to the recent Ukraine dispute between Europe and Russia, gas demands in Europe has been increasing with a switch of roughly 30 percent of Qatar's export capacity to the European market in Petroleum Economist, Given substantial gas resources and its advantageous location, Australia's LNG industry has been rapidly developing Kompas and Che, c , especially since As of November , about The opportunities in the Asia-Pacific are tremendous, including high LNG demand, relatively high LNG prices, shorter shipping distances and well-established trade relationships.
The challenges are considerable, including the high cost of exploitation, the need for large capital investment, often slower construction times, and the lack of experience in export-based coal seam gas. Regarding the effect of groundwater extraction, coal seam gas CSG development causes a high risk to water use for household and agriculture Kompas and Che, d CSG is a natural gas held in coal seams under pressure by groundwater.
CSG development in Queensland is projected to draw about — gigalitres GL of water out of the ground each year.
CSG development also requires land clearing connected to roads and pipelines, pumps, generators, compressors, ponds or tanks and storage facilities. CSG fields have a big industrial footprint, requiring clearance and degradation of large areas of land Stop CSG, As a result, future CSG development requires a relevant strategy of long-term development of agriculture and environment. Also, along with significant gains from LNG exports, the welfare of domestic gas users is apparently affected by higher gas prices, less security over long-term contracts and more uncertainty over gas supplies.
In the USA, increases in shale gas supplies are extraordinary, bringing the country closer to energy independence and to being a major LNG exporter. According to the Department of Energy DOE , by December , total long-term applications of new gas projects received by the Department of Energy DOE will increase potential exports by up to Cheniere Energy Inc is set to be the first company to export gas produced from the US shale boom. In addition, given the evolution of technology, the potential effects of floating LNG FLNG , or ships that liquefy gas onboard, could have a substantial impact on the industry if proven viable since it removes the need to build permanent infrastructure at receiving ports Resutek, Emergence of Australia and the US in existing long term contracts, —20 Mt.
Source: Computed from Petroleum Economist Second, transportation costs are relatively high and uncertain from North America to the Asia-Pacific market. Despite the widening of the Panama Canal which is expected to be a significant shipping route from the USA to Asia for LNG , which will reduce transportation costs, the overall tariffs or conditions of passage for LNG cargoes through the canal are yet to be confirmed. In , oil-linked pricing formation accounted for 83 percent of total gas imports in the Asia-Pacific region IGU, The S-curve pricing formula shows a linear relationship between the price of LNG and crude oil, but it also contains price ceilings and floors to moderate the extreme impact of crude oil prices on LNG prices.
The oil-linked price mechanism has dominated LNG price formation for decades. However, this mechanism has been challenged since , raising serious concerns about its use Agerton, Recent robust world crude oil supply growth and weak global demand have caused global oil inventories to rise and crude oil prices to fall sharply since mid However, several factors could generate uncertainties in future crude oil prices, including how key producers regulate output EIA, In addition, rising oil prices since early to mid induced LNG prices to increase at a historically high level, resulting in LNG prices in the region being several times higher than the North American market.
However, recent sharply falling crude oil prices since mid have driven significant falls in LNG spot prices and future LNG long-term contract prices in the Asia-Pacific region. The key variables of the model are indicated in Table 6. Figure 3 represents the LNG trade flows between importers and exporters. The LNG demand side includes N import countries with i import nodes. I , respectively. J , respectively. The LNG trade flow between node i and node j at time t includes the existing long term contracts and common trade the term common LNG trade refers to all other LNG trade that does not belong to existing long term contracts at time t , including spot and short term trade and potential future long term contracts , or.
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The cost of node i e i j t to import X i j t from node j is given by. Figure 4 represents the relationship of energy consumption, gas demand and LNG imports in a representative import country country n. At equilibrium, energy demand is given by. The key drivers of energy demand are economic growth, population growth, the economic structure of the economy and energy policies.
The sources of uncertainty in energy demand are exogenous shocks from geopolitical and economic events, and changes in economic structure and energy policies. The key drivers of the fuel mix are differences in comparative advantage across countries, relative energy prices, environmental targets and other constraints for LNG development. The key drivers for equation 4 are domestic gas resources, relative prices at gas source-points and the conditions of pipeline and LNG supplies.
The sources of uncertainty include changes in relative prices among gas producers and policies and constraints surrounding domestic production and gas imports. In country n , at equilibrium, LNG import demand is given by. Given total LNG imports of country n at time t , X n t includes the component of existing long term contracts in force at time t and common trade from all nodal trades in the country, or. Total LNG imports are constrained by the import capacity of the country, or.
In node j of a representative export country, total gas production of node j y j supplies domestic consumption, the Asia-Pacific market and other international markets. As indicated in 1 , the gas exported to Asia-Pacific by node j X j t includes the exports based on existing long term contracts q j and common trade x j.
At equilibrium gas output of node j y j t at time t is. The total LNG export of node j is constrained to be less than the export capacity, or. The delivery cost of a LNG unit traded between node j to node i includes the cost of gas production, liquefaction, shipping, de-gasification and other costs. According to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT , the supply-cost gas curve has a convex shape, but is a linear relationship until supply increases by more than times compared to current global gas supply. The cost of a unit of gas production c 1 j is given by. Based on 12 , the LNG delivery cost from node j to node i c i j t is given by.
Based on 2 , the total cost of LNG imports of country n is given by. The objective function for the APGM is to minimise total costs of Asia-Pacific LNG imports using the control variables of trade flows among import and export nodes, or. Given the relationships and constraints of the model as discussed in Equations 1 — 16 , it is assumed that importing countries are acting to minimise the costs of imports from various nodes, given relative supplies, changes in those supplies and changes in costs of supply as import proportions vary.
The model is programmed and solved using a stochastic programming process and parallel programming techniques. Solutions are obtained through an iterative procedure for all gas importers and exporters in the Asia-Pacific region. Matlab and information provided by the Geographic Information System GIS are also used to assist with data and other inputs, and for the analysis. The model is developed and supported by data for the particular structure and dynamics of the oil-linked pricing and long-term contracting mechanisms, along with other market conditions in the Asia-Pacific LNG market.
The model is also non-linear and stochastic allowing a full capture of the interactions or relationships between consumption, production, and trade, with uncertainty. This section describes key sources in the database and calibrations for the APGM model. Using relationships between economic growth and LNG demand growth in the past, future LNG demand in these countries is projected.
In the emerging consumer group, the key assumption is that gas price market reform will be take place. China's LNG domestic gas production and outlook for gas pipeline imports from Russia is based on Chen and Xin The projection of the LNG long-term contract prices is based on the study of Kompas and Che a , which is based on the oil-linked pricing mechanism with a projection of crude oil prices from the World Bank b and EIA Over the period of —30, the database of LNG supply capacity and long term contracts is based on existing capacity and projected new capacity from LNG projects.
The new LNG projects include those already committed, economically feasibility and any announced projects. It is important to identify the social-economic constraints of LNG capacity supply. Environmental concerns over coal seam gas in Australia could also be an issue in the development of LNG projects in a number of important agricultural areas, such as in the Murray—Darling basin, Tasmania, or Queensland.
The process of gas transmission from production to end consumer use includes three phases of upstream exploration and production , midstream liquefaction and shipping and downstream re-gasification and distribution transmission. Following Core Energy Group and Argus , LNG delivery cost is taken as the sum of production cost capital cost, labour and other costs , transport cost, shipping, re-gasification and other costs, such as manning cost, lube, repair and maintenance.
LNG capital costs are broken down further by major input sectors, including treatment, liquefaction, fractionation, utilities and offsite costs, and storage and loading costs Coyle et al. The liquefaction cost of an LNG project can be measured in terms of cost per Mt per year of supply capacity. According to KPMG Global Energy Institute , the key advantages of FLNG includes the ability to unlock smaller fields, have better access to remote fields, a reduction in environmental footprint and the ability to deliver projects cheaper and faster. Calculation of shipping costs is based on distance knots , the size of a ship, carrier utilisation, time of loading and discharge.
The key parameters for shipping costs are drawn from Platts, b , Platts, c and Argus The key assumptions here are: one day in port for loading and two for discharge, with a boil off rate of 0. Given the uncertainties over LNG demand, delivery costs and prices, the projection of LNG trade over the study period is conditioned by distributions over key parameters.
Proceedings of the 4th International Gas Processing Symposium: Qatar, October 2014
This section provides a summary of the projection of trade volumes in mean values see Figures 5 — 6 , trade values with uncertainty Figure 7 , and details trade values among major LNG consumers as summarized in Figure 8. LNG imports in Asia-Pacific are projected to increase from Japan's LNG imports are projected to be Korea's LNG consumption is projected to increase from The share of emerging LNG importers in total LNG imports are projected to rise significantly, increasing from 20 percent in to Those measured in the first quarter of were the lowest of any recorded for the first quarter of any year since Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is currently the cleanest available source of power using hydrocarbon fuels, and this technology is widely and increasingly used as natural gas can be obtained at increasingly reasonable costs.
Fuel cell technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive. Locally produced electricity and heat using natural gas powered Combined Heat and Power plant CHP or Cogeneration plant is considered energy efficient and a rapid way to cut carbon emissions. Approximately half as much as generated with coal. Both North America and Europe are major consumers of natural gas. Domestic appliances, furnaces, and boilers use low pressure, usually 6 to 7 inches of water 6" to 7" WC , which is about 0.
Natural gas - Wikipedia
The pressures in the supply lines vary, either utilization pressure UP, the aforementioned 6" to 7" WC or elevated pressure EP , which may be anywhere from 1 psig to psig. Systems using EP have a regulator at the service entrance to step down the pressure to UP. In the US compressed natural gas CNG is available in some rural areas as an alternative to less expensive and more abundant LPG liquefied petroleum gas , the dominant source of rural gas. It is used in homes lacking direct connections to public utility provided gas, or to fuel portable grills.
Natural gas is also supplied by independent natural gas suppliers through Natural Gas Choice programs [ clarification needed ] throughout the United States. CNG is a cleaner and also cheaper alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline petrol. CNG-specific engines, however, use a higher compression ratio due to this fuel's higher octane number of — Besides use in road vehicles, CNG can also be used in aircraft. LNG is also being used in aircraft. Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev for instance is running a development program to produce LNG- and hydrogen -powered aircraft. The advantages of liquid methane as a jet engine fuel are that it has more specific energy than the standard kerosene mixes do and that its low temperature can help cool the air which the engine compresses for greater volumetric efficiency, in effect replacing an intercooler.
Alternatively, it can be used to lower the temperature of the exhaust. Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia , via the Haber process , for use in fertilizer production. Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen , with one common method being the hydrogen reformer.
Hydrogen has many applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry , a hydrogenating agent, an important commodity for oil refineries, and the fuel source in hydrogen vehicles. Protein rich animal and fish feed is produced by feeding natural gas to Methylococcus capsulatus bacteria on commercial scale. Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics , glass , steel , plastics , paint , and other products.
Natural gas is mainly composed of methane. Natural gas is thus a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide due to the greater global-warming potential of methane. During extraction, storage, transportation, and distribution, natural gas is known to leak into the atmosphere, particularly during the extraction process.
In MethaneSAT should reduce the large uncertainties in the estimates. Natural gas is often described as the cleanest fossil fuel. According to an updated version of the Special Report on Emissions Scenario by , natural gas would be the source of 11 billion tons a year, with coal and oil now 8. According to Global Energy Monitor , gas pipelines built in the s, especially in the United States, are locking in huge greenhouse gas emissions for 40 to 50 years at a time.
To reduce its greenhouse emissions, the government of the Netherlands is subsidizing a transition away from natural gas for all homes in the country by In Amsterdam, no new residential gas accounts are allowed as of July 1, , and all homes in the city are expected to be converted by Natural gas produces far lower amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides than other fossil fuels. Natural gas extraction also produces radioactive isotopes of polonium Po , lead Pb and radon Rn Radon is a gas with initial activity from 5 to , becquerels per cubic meter of gas.
It decays rapidly to Pb which can build up as a thin film in gas extraction equipment. The natural gas extraction workforce face unique health and safety challenges and is recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda NORA to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues.
Some gas fields yield sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide H 2 S , a toxic compound when inhaled. Amine gas treating , an industrial scale process which removes acidic gaseous components, is often used to remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. Extraction of natural gas or oil leads to decrease in pressure in the reservoir. Such decrease in pressure in turn may result in subsidence , sinking of the ground above.
Subsidence may affect ecosystems, waterways, sewer and water supply systems, foundations, and so on. Releasing natural gas from subsurface porous rock formations may be accomplished by a process called hydraulic fracturing or "fracking". In hydraulic fracturing, well operators force water mixed with a variety of chemicals through the wellbore casing into the rock.
The high pressure water breaks up or "fracks" the rock, which releases gas from the rock formation. Sand and other particles are added to the water as a proppant to keep the fractures in the rock open, thus enabling the gas to flow into the casing and then to the surface. Chemicals are added to the fluid to perform such functions as reducing friction and inhibiting corrosion. Many gas-bearing formations also contain water, which will flow up the wellbore to the surface along with the gas, in both hydraulically fractured and non-hydraulically fractured wells.
This produced water often has a high content of salt and other dissolved minerals that occur in the formation. The volume of water used to hydraulically fracture wells varies according to the hydraulic fracturing technique. In the United States, the average volume of water used per hydraulic fracture has been reported as nearly 7, gallons for vertical oil and gas wells prior to , nearly , gallons for vertical oil and gas wells between —, and nearly 3 million gallons for horizontal gas wells between — Determining which fracking technique is appropriate for well productivity depends largely on the properties of the reservoir rock from which to extract oil or gas.
If the rock is characterized by low-permeability — which refers to its ability to let substances, i. Natural gas in its native state is colorless and almost odorless. In order to assist consumers in detecting leaks , an odorizer with a scent similar to rotten eggs, tert-Butylthiol t-butyl mercaptan , is added. Sometimes a related compound, thiophane , may be used in the mixture. Situations in which an odorant that is added to natural gas can be detected by analytical instrumentation, but cannot be properly detected by an observer with a normal sense of smell, have occurred in the natural gas industry.
This is caused by odor masking, when one odorant overpowers the sensation of another. As of , the industry is conducting research on the causes of odor masking. Explosions caused by natural gas leaks occur a few times each year. Individual homes, small businesses and other structures are most frequently affected when an internal leak builds up gas inside the structure.
Frequently, the blast is powerful enough to significantly damage a building but leave it standing. In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries. Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process. The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if flow rates are high enough.
However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low. Natural gas heating systems may cause carbon monoxide poisoning if unvented or poorly vented. In , natural gas furnaces, space heaters, water heaters and stoves were blamed for 11 carbon monoxide deaths in the US. Another 22 deaths were attributed to appliances running on liquified petroleum gas, and 17 deaths on gas of unspecified type. Improvements in natural gas furnace designs have greatly reduced CO poisoning concerns.
Gas prices for end users vary greatly across the EU. Moreover, it would help to resolve supply and global warming issues,  as well as strengthen relations with other Mediterranean countries and foster investments in the region. Gas sales to domestic consumers are often in units of standard cubic feet scf. Gas meters measure the volume of gas used, and this is converted to therms by multiplying the volume by the energy content of the gas used during that period, which varies slightly over time.
The typical annual consumption of a single family residence is 1, therms or one Residential Customer Equivalent RCE. A million decatherms is a trillion BTU, roughly a billion cubic feet of natural gas. The price of natural gas varies greatly depending on location and type of consumer.
Canada uses metric measure for internal trade of petrochemical products. Consequently, natural gas is sold by the gigajoule GJ , cubic meter m 3 or thousand cubic meters E3m3. Distribution infrastructure and meters almost always meter volume cubic foot or cubic meter. Some jurisdictions, such as Saskatchewan, sell gas by volume only.
Other jurisdictions, such as Alberta, gas is sold by the energy content GJ. In these areas, almost all meters for residential and small commercial customers measure volume m 3 or ft 3 , and billing statements include a multiplier to convert the volume to energy content of the local gas supply. Outside of the European Union, the U. Long term natural gas distribution contracts are signed in cubic meters, and LNG contracts are in metric tonnes. In they produced Gazprom supplied Europe with In August , possibly the largest natural gas discovery in history was made and notified by an Italian gas company ENI.
ENI said that the energy is about5. The field was found in the deep waters off the northern coast of Egypt and ENI claims that it will be the largest ever in the Mediterranean and even the world. Natural gas may be stored by adsorbing it to the porous solids called sorbents. The optimal condition for methane storage is at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Pressures up to 4 MPa about 40 times atmospheric pressure will yield greater storage capacity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: List of natural gas fields , List of countries by natural gas proven reserves , and List of countries by natural gas production.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Shale gas. Main article: History of manufactured gas.
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Main article: Biogas. Main article: Natural gas processing. Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant. Main article: Gas depletion. See also: Industrial gas. See also: Environmental impact of the energy industry. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
May See also: Atmospheric methane. Main article: Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing. Main article: Natural gas prices. See also: Billion cubic metres of natural gas. Energy portal Renewable energy portal. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 10 November American Geosciences Institute.
Retrieved 1 May The Guardian. US Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 27 May Energy Information Administration eia. Retrieved 1 December The Economics of the Gas Supply Industry. Analysis of seals involves assessment of their thickness and extent, such that their effectiveness can be quantified. Finally, careful studies of migration reveal information on how hydrocarbons move from source to reservoir and help quantify the source or kitchen of hydrocarbons in a particular area.
Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. There has been a significant. Other job responsibilities include numerical reservoir modeling, production forecasting, well testing, well drilling and workover planning, economic modeling, and PVT analysis of reservoir fluids.
Reservoir engineers also play a central role in field development planning, recommending appropriate and cost-effective reservoir depletion schemes such as water flooding or gas injection to maximize hydrocarbon recovery. Petrochemistry is made of a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Each geographical location and hence oil field will produce raw petroleum with a different combination of molecules depending upon the overall percentage of each hydrocarbon it contains, this directly affects the coloration and viscosity of the petroleum chemistry.
Plant oils will replace petroleum in the coming year. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products, and economic considerations. Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as , to , barrels , to , cubic meters per day of crude oil.
Several key projects were completed to improve oil and gas production, handling capacity, surveillance, and reduce downtime. Oil operations successfully commissioned 65 new oil wells. These new wells contributed significantly to the production stabilization in The largest share of oil products is used as "energy carriers", i. Heavier less volatile fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils.
Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may also be produced as petroleum products. Most of the times these two terms are used interchangeably. However, this is not true. This is the only reason that it is said that all renewable energy sources are sustainable but all sustainable energy sources are not renewable. Theme: Demonstrating advancements in the field of Petroleum Engineering. Petroleum Engineering is the platform to gain or share knowledge in the new technological developments in the field of chemical engineering.
The organizing committee is gearing up for an exciting and informative conference program including plenary lectures, symposia, workshops on a variety of topics, poster presentations and various programs for participants from all over the world. All members of the Petroleum Engineering organizing committee look forward to meeting you in Rome, Italy. Petroleum geology and geophysics focus on the provision of a static description of the hydrocarbon reservoir rock, while petroleum engineering focuses on estimation of the recoverable volume of this resource using a detailed understanding of the physical behavior of oil, water, and gas within porous rock at very high pressure.
The combined efforts of geologists and petroleum engineers throughout the life of a hydrocarbon accumulation determine the way in which a reservoir is developed and depleted, and usually, they have the highest impact on field economics.
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